Category Archives: water hardness

Determination of permanent hardness of water

The available methods for determination of permanent hardness of water are O’Heners method, EDTA method and Soap titration method. Initially we have to know; what is hardness? –Hardness is due to presence of bicarbonate, sulphates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium and magnesium. It is expressed in ppm (part per million) as calcium carbonate. There are two types of hardness: Temporary Read more

Determination of total hardness of water

To determine the Total Hardness of Water, EDTA is the easiest method. Reason, EDTA reacts with all metal without alkali metal and the proportion is 1:1. The main cause of water hardness is dissolved salts of calcium and magnesium. Moreover the other ions like Strontium, Iron, Barium and Manganese also contribute of water hardness. Traditional it is measured by the amount of soap that is Read more

Lime soda process

Lime soda process is one of the water softener systems. In this system calcium hydroxide and soda ash are used as reagents. By this process soluble magnesium and calcium salts are removed as calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide precipitated. After removal of this precipitated, we obtain soft water. Both temporary water hardness and permanent water hardness are removed by this lime Read more