Determination of chemical oxygen demand of water

Chemical Oxygen Demand indicates the amount of oxygen required to oxidize all soluble and particulate organic substances in water under specific conditions. All organic compounds may convert into carbon dioxide, water and ammonia. It is a significant parameter to determinate water characteristic. The COD value depends on oxidizing agent, pH, temperature, and period of time. It is expressed as Read more

Biochemical Oxygen Demand – BOD determination

There is a close relationship between dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. BOD is the amount of dissolved oxygen required to break down the organic material of the sample water by aerobic biological organisms at certain temperature over a specific time period. Generally this parameter is determined with the consumption of oxygen by the micro organism during 5 days of incubation at Read more

Aquarium water treatment

There are different sources of aquarium water. All are not suitable for it. So treatment is necessary. Moreover, you have to feed the fish. This can also create problems. The main aquarium water problems are algae, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, hardness, pH, alkalinity and temperature. In addition you have to always remember that not to add too many fish at a time or do not overcrowd Read more

Dissolved oxygen in water

Dissolved oxygen (DO) means the amount of oxygen that is dissolved in the water. Oxygen is the essential element to all animals. No animals can survive without it. Dissolved oxygen in water makes aquatic life possible. Human being takes oxygen from the air with the lungs. On the other hand, Fishes take dissolved oxygen through their gills. Gills work better if the water contains more oxygen. Read more

Arsenic in drinking water

Higher level of arsenic in drinking water is dangerous for health. It is a semi-metal element. In general it is naturally found in the earth’s crust. It is odorless, tasteless and colorless. So you are not able to conform if your drinking water is contaminant to the arsenic. You can only determine the presence and concentration of arsenic in water with the laboratory analysis. It should Read more

Swimming pool chlorine stabilizer

Cyanuric acid used as a swimming pool chlorine stabilizer. The Chlorine sanitizes the pool water and keeps the water clean and safe for the swimmers. In presence of sun light and high temperatures it is very unstable; it breaks down into inactive components and losses its effectiveness. Therefore to maintain the chlorine level for water disinfection, we have to add more amount of chlorine. It Read more

Determination of permanent hardness of water

The available methods for determination of permanent hardness of water are O’Heners method, EDTA method and Soap titration method. Initially we have to know; what is hardness? –Hardness is due to presence of bicarbonate, sulphates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium and magnesium. It is expressed in ppm (part per million) as calcium carbonate. There are two types of hardness: Temporary Read more

Determination of total hardness of water

To determine the Total Hardness of Water, EDTA is the easiest method. Reason, EDTA reacts with all metal without alkali metal and the proportion is 1:1. The main cause of water hardness is dissolved salts of calcium and magnesium. Moreover the other ions like Strontium, Iron, Barium and Manganese also contribute of water hardness. Traditional it is measured by the amount of soap that is Read more

Determination of total amount of cations in water

Different types of metal salt are dissolved in natural, industrial or any other water. Therefore, the water contains different type of cations. The cations in water can be determined by using cation exchange resin. They are electron donors and consequent positively charged. Some common cations are Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+ or Fe3+, Mn2+, Al3+. On the other hand, cation exchange resin contains Read more

Problems of iron and copper in pool water

The presence of metal such as manganese, iron and copper in pool water can lead to discolor the water when chlorine or any other oxidizer is added. It does not affect on the clarity of the water too much. Magnesium and manganese can also increase the hardness of the water. The metal may enter in pool water through by chemicals, pool equipment and plumbing or poles, toys, and tools that are fall Read more