Water Desalination Process

Water desalination process is a system that removes dissolved salt and other contaminant from water in order to obtain fresh water. This water may be used as drinking, industrial or irrigation purposes. This process is used those areas where fresh water is insufficient but unlimited supply of saline water like Saudi Arabia, UAE, USA, Israel, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Australia, North Read more

salt water pool problems

Despite the popularity of the salt water pool in the USA is increasing day by day, but they have some problems. They are not a chlorine free swimming pool. Here Chlorine is produced from the salt water with the help of electrolytic chlorine generator (ECG). These types of pools are popular due to the water is clean, less chlorine smell, lower chloramines formation and low eyes irritation. The Read more

Demineralization of water – DM water

Demineralization of water is a process that removes minerals from water and produced demineralized water. Shortly it is called dm water or demi water. It is water softening process. The most common dm water processes are distillation, deionization, membrane filtration (reverse osmosis or nanofiltration), electrodialysis. This water is not free from some uncharged molecules like viruses or Read more

Swimming pool filter system

Swimming pool filter system is used to removes dust, dirt, debris and other particulates from the water. These contaminants come into the pool water through the environment, chemicals or carried by the swimmers. The wind blows the dust, leaves, chemical wastes, pollen, spores, bacteria etc. into the water. On the other hand swimmers carry sweat, suntan oils, urine, bacteria, viruses, etc. to Read more

Disinfection and sterilization of water

Sterilization of water is the process that kills, eliminates or deactivates the all form of microorganisms in the water. It is the critical stage for safe potable water. This method must achieve all most 100% deactivation so that prevents the spread of water-borne diseases. On the other hand disinfection means the process that are removing or reducing harmful microorganisms. There are different Read more

Coagulation water treatment process

The purpose of coagulation water treatment process is to removes the colloidal particles from water. The water may contain suspended matter, small or large solid particles. Sedimentation and filtration processes can removes most of the solid particles but the small particles that are remains in colloidal suspension cannot removes. If they clump together and form larger particles, then it would Read more

Determination of chemical oxygen demand of water

Chemical Oxygen Demand indicates the amount of oxygen required to oxidize all soluble and particulate organic substances in water under specific conditions. All organic compounds may convert into carbon dioxide, water and ammonia. It is a significant parameter to determinate water characteristic. The COD value depends on oxidizing agent, pH, temperature, and period of time. It is expressed as Read more

Biochemical Oxygen Demand – BOD determination

There is a close relationship between dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. BOD is the amount of dissolved oxygen required to break down the organic material of the sample water by aerobic biological organisms at certain temperature over a specific time period. Generally this parameter is determined with the consumption of oxygen by the micro organism during 5 days of incubation at Read more

Aquarium water treatment

There are different sources of aquarium water. All are not suitable for it. So treatment is necessary. Moreover, you have to feed the fish. This can also create problems. The main aquarium water problems are algae, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, hardness, pH, alkalinity and temperature. In addition you have to always remember that not to add too many fish at a time or do not overcrowd Read more

Dissolved oxygen in water

Dissolved oxygen (DO) means the amount of oxygen that is dissolved in the water. Oxygen is the essential element to all animals. No animals can survive without it. Dissolved oxygen in water makes aquatic life possible. Human being takes oxygen from the air with the lungs. On the other hand, Fishes take dissolved oxygen through their gills. Gills work better if the water contains more oxygen. Read more