Swimming pool filter system

Swimming pool filter system is used to removes dust, dirt, debris and other particulates from the water. These contaminants come into the pool water through the environment, chemicals or carried by the swimmers. The wind blows the dust, leaves, chemical wastes, pollen, spores, bacteria etc. into the water. On the other hand swimmers carry sweat, suntan oils, urine, bacteria, viruses, etc. to Read more

Disinfection and sterilization of water

Sterilization of water is the process that kills, eliminates or deactivates the all form of microorganisms in the water. It is the critical stage for safe potable water. This method must achieve all most 100% deactivation so that prevents the spread of water-borne diseases. On the other hand disinfection means the process that are removing or reducing harmful microorganisms. There are different Read more

Coagulation water treatment process

The purpose of coagulation water treatment process is to removes the colloidal particles from water. The water may contain suspended matter, small or large solid particles. Sedimentation and filtration processes can removes most of the solid particles but the small particles that are remains in colloidal suspension cannot removes. If they clump together and form larger particles, then it would Read more

Determination of chemical oxygen demand of water

Chemical Oxygen Demand indicates the amount of oxygen required to oxidize all soluble and particulate organic substances in water under specific conditions. All organic compounds may convert into carbon dioxide, water and ammonia. It is a significant parameter to determinate water characteristic. The COD value depends on oxidizing agent, pH, temperature, and period of time. It is expressed as Read more

Biochemical Oxygen Demand – BOD determination

There is a close relationship between dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. BOD is the amount of dissolved oxygen required to break down the organic material of the sample water by aerobic biological organisms at certain temperature over a specific time period. Generally this parameter is determined with the consumption of oxygen by the micro organism during 5 days of incubation at Read more

Aquarium water treatment

There are different sources of aquarium water. All are not suitable for it. So treatment is necessary. Moreover, you have to feed the fish. This can also create problems. The main aquarium water problems are algae, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, hardness, pH, alkalinity and temperature. In addition you have to always remember that not to add too many fish at a time or do not overcrowd Read more

Dissolved oxygen in water

Dissolved oxygen (DO) means the amount of oxygen that is dissolved in the water. Oxygen is the essential element to all animals. No animals can survive without it. Dissolved oxygen in water makes aquatic life possible. Human being takes oxygen from the air with the lungs. On the other hand, Fishes take dissolved oxygen through their gills. Gills work better if the water contains more oxygen. Read more

Arsenic in drinking water

Higher level of arsenic in drinking water is dangerous for health. It is a semi-metal element. In general it is naturally found in the earth’s crust. It is odorless, tasteless and colorless. So you are not able to conform if your drinking water is contaminant to the arsenic. You can only determine the presence and concentration of arsenic in water with the laboratory analysis. It should Read more

Swimming pool chlorine stabilizer

Cyanuric acid used as a swimming pool chlorine stabilizer. The Chlorine sanitizes the pool water and keeps the water clean and safe for the swimmers. In presence of sun light and high temperatures it is very unstable; it breaks down into inactive components and losses its effectiveness. Therefore to maintain the chlorine level for water disinfection, we have to add more amount of chlorine. It Read more

Determination of permanent hardness of water

The available methods for determination of permanent hardness of water are O’Heners method, EDTA method and Soap titration method. Initially we have to know; what is hardness? –Hardness is due to presence of bicarbonate, sulphates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium and magnesium. It is expressed in ppm (part per million) as calcium carbonate. There are two types of hardness: Temporary Read more