Determination of total hardness of water

To determine the Total Hardness of Water, EDTA is the easiest method. Reason, EDTA reacts with all metal without alkali metal and the proportion is 1:1. The main cause of water hardness is dissolved salts of calcium and magnesium. Moreover the other ions like Strontium, Iron, Barium and Manganese also contribute of water hardness. Traditional it is measured by the amount of soap that is Read more

Determination of total amount of cations in water

Different types of metal salt are dissolved in natural, industrial or any other water. Therefore, the water contains different type of cations. The cations in water can be determined by using cation exchange resin. They are electron donors and consequent positively charged. Some common cations are Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+ or Fe3+, Mn2+, Al3+. On the other hand, cation exchange resin contains Read more

Problems of iron and copper in pool water

The presence of metal such as manganese, iron and copper in pool water can lead to discolor the water when chlorine or any other oxidizer is added. It does not affect on the clarity of the water too much. Magnesium and manganese can also increase the hardness of the water. The metal may enter in pool water through by chemicals, pool equipment and plumbing or poles, toys, and tools that are fall Read more

Water Summit for clean drinking water in Minnesota

Governor’s Mark Dayton called his first Water Summit at the Intercontinental Saint Paul Riverfront Hotel, to focus public attention on how to clean drinking water and other supplies. The summit is held on Saturday, dated 27.02.2016. More than 800 individuals, including water quality experts, members of the public, local leaders, farmers, legislators, regulators, the business community, and a Read more

What is the reason for bubbles in bottled water

What is the reason for bubbles in bottled water? – The main reason for bubbles in water bottle is dissolved gases. There are many reasons for dissolving gases in the water. The amount of gases dissolved in water depends on pressure, temperature, types of dissolved gas, chemical composition of the bottled water. Atmospheric gases such as oxygen, carbon di-oxide, nitrogen and other gases Read more

Total dissolved solids in pool water

Generally the total dissolved solids in pool water are always rising. TDS is the measure of the total amount of the soluble substances that are dissolved in the water. The including soluble substances are calcium, manganese, sodium, copper, iron, other trace metals, chlorides, sulfates, rubber ducks, swimmer waste, every bit of dissolved dust, pollen, total alkalinity, conditioner, and all Read more

Determination of chloride in water by mohr method

Mohr method is one of the significant methods for determination of chloride in water. It is also known as Argentometric method. Chloride ion is a negatively charged ion. This method is appropriate for neutral or slightly alkaline water. Water sample is titrating against standard AgNO3 solution by using potassium chromate indicator. It is a precipitation titration method. Table of Read more

Swimming pool pH balance – maintaining pool water pH level

The swimming pool pH level is one of the most significant factors in pool water balance. The pH is the determination of the acidity or alkalinity of the water. pH means hydrogen ions molar concentration in a solution. It is calculated by the formula –log[H+]. The pH level is measured from 0 to 14, whereas pH 7.0 is neutral. When the pH is below 7.0 then it is called acidic. Conversely, Read more

Pool calcium hardness increaser and reducer

The total mineral that contains in the pool water such as calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and sodium are responsible for Total hardness. On the other hand, pool calcium hardness means the amount of calcium ions concentration in water express as CaCO3. Both high and low levels of calcium hardness create problems in swimming pool. The perfect level of calcium hardness in pool water is 150-350 Read more

Chloramines in swimming pools – remove chloramine from water

Chloramines in swimming pools are the effect of inadequate free chlorine. It is also called combined chlorine. Normally it produces strong odor of chlorine around the swimming pool and the pool water. Chloramine loses to a great extent of chlorine’s disinfect power. It is about 70 times less effective than free chorine. The maximum acceptable level of chloramines is less than 0.5 mg/l. Read more