Physiologically and morphologically heterogeneous bacteria can create nuisances in water systems. The bacteria are included in this group are slime bacteria, iron bacteria, sulfur bacteria and sulfate bacteria. Bacteria in water systems create taste, order, and produce color in water. Moreover it increases tuberculation, turbidity and decrease in carrying capacity of pipes.
Inorganic and Read more
Determination of hardness of water by EDTA method is one of the three main methods for determination of hardness of water. EDTA means Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. This EDTA reagent can be forming edta-metal complexes by the reaction with metal ions except for alkali metal ions. This reagent can forms a stable complex with the alkaline earth metal like calcium ion and magnesium ion in Read more
Theoretically water hardness means the concentrations of all the metallic cations except the cations of the alkali metals. All nonmetallic ions like Hydrogen ion are excluded from the definition. Normally in the largest part waters, all off the water hardness is occurred by reason of the presence of calcium and magnesium ions. But in some water it should be consideration the measurable Read more