Yamuna is the most polluted and important river in north India. It passes through Uttarakhand, Haryana, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh, before join together with the Ganga at Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. About 60 million people depend on Yamuna waters. The peoples of Delhi and Agra’s are one of the most consumers of the Yamuna River. This river is the source of 70 per cent of Delhi’s water supplies. Downstream, at Agra point, this river becomes the main municipal drinking water source. In some point the River water is not fit for drinking, bathing or aquatic life; it is only fit for industrial cooling, irrigation, etc.
The level of water pollution in Yamuna is not same all through the year. During rainy season the water quality is better than others time. Starting rainy season the water quality is worsen due to washout different waste, chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides and fall into the river.
The whole lengths of the river are divided into five segments on the bases of hydrological and ecological conditions such as Himalayan Segment, Upper Segment, Delhi Segment, Eutriphicated Segment and Diluted Segment. The pollution of the river water of Yamuna begins from Tajewala in the upper segment and most polluted segment is Delhi segment. About 22 drains fall into the Yamuna River in the Delhi segment which are loaded with huge amount of biological and chemical wastage. Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) and the Eastern Yamuna Canal (EYC) are responsible for upper segment pollution. The Haiderpur water treatment plant which supplies part of delhi’s water is situated in the range of WYC. All household and industrial wastage and discharges from Yamuna Nagar are emit into this canal. There are many heavy industrial units such as 42 in Delhi, 22 in Haryana and 17 in Uttar Pradesh and a lot of small industrial units are situated in Yamuna River’s area; all wastage and discharges of these industries goes into the river.
The Yamuna River is passing through a massive amount of agricultural areas; about 58% is agricultural area. The owner of these lands are used a huge amount of fertilizers and pesticides. These carcinogenic chemical polluted the river water which seriously affect on the aquatic environment as well as human being. The existing water treatment plant has no facilities to remove the traces amount of pesticide; even the laboratories are not able to detect them. When the people of Delhi and Agra consume this water as drinking purpose, they also consume indefinite amounts of toxic pesticide residues each time.
The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) in jumuna is 28mg/l, whereas the tolerable level is 3 mg/L. It also signifies the water pollution in Yamuna River. The presence of Cadmium, Nickel, Iron, Zinc and Chromium are cross the maximum level in some point in Yamuna River.
To prevent the water pollution in Yamuna River, it should not allow discharging the untreated sewage into the river and more sewerage treatment plants ought to be formed instantly. Farmers should using organic fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides; instead of chemical fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides.