Hard water effects significantly in industries. It can be said that in every industrial purpose it should be use conditioning water rather than hard water. Such as Beverages, textile industries, boiler, cooling tower and plumbing purposes.
Effect of Hard Water in Textile Industry
Water hardness greatly effects on textile dyeing, washing and finishing section. In washing section hard water make the yarn stiff and scratchy. Hard water contains tiny mineral particles and these particles mix with soap turn into like small pieces of rock. Iron containing hard water creates reddish yellow color on washed fabrics. Imperfect soil removal from fabric lessens the colors intensity; an unpleasant odor may be developed. Insoluble soap scum and dirt on the fabrics or yarn lead to yellowish color and uneven dying.
Effects of hard water in beverage industries
Water uses in beverages industries is very sensitive. Water should be free from any contaminants and microorganisms. If hard water used in these industries, it can be change the soft drinks color, test and odor. Moreover a deposit can be developed here. So water must be conditioning before uses for decreasing the effects of hard water in beverages industries. Otherwise lessen the product quality.
Plumbing effects of hard water and repair
Hard water creates a plumbing problem. It can be reduced the life of plumbing and needs more repairs time. Calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water and these ions can be made lime scale. This lime scale can be accumulated some water flow restricted point like pipe bending point, Shower heads, faucet and valves. It reduces flow through the pipes. Sooner or later pipes can turn into completely clogged. Consequently, it increase downtimes for plumbing repair or sometimes may be required pipe replacement.
Effects on cooling towers
In cooling towers water is used as heat transfer medium. If hard water is used in this case, it makes scale, corrosion in cooling towers. Dissolved iron in hard water precipitate in cooling towers basin and also corrosive. Calcium and magnesium developed scale. This scale reduces water flow, heat transfer and makes temperature drops. Hence increase the repair cost.
In hard water different ions are present. When two different type of metal are present in the medium of hard water; these ions can be act as an electrolyte. As a result it leads to corrosion.
In boiler heat is applied to steam formation. When hard water is used in boiler hard crystalline deposits of calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, magnesium carbonate are formed. This insoluble solid is mainly caused by thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ions from temporary hardness. The resultant lime scale reduced the heating efficiency. Hence it is need further heating; also overheat the metal boiler. This overheating can lead to damage the boiler. In pipe line this scale also restricts the water flow.