Water purification tablets are used to make water safe by killing harmful micro-organisms in water to prevent different water borne diseases as like typhoid, cholera, dysentery and more others. Water purification tablets are used in emergency situation such as travelers, militaries, hikers, campers and emergency organizations and any person else who needs to drink water of questionable quality. It can also be used for continuous in household’s purpose. It is also called water disinfection tablets or water treatment tablets.
Normally water is contaminants by suspended particles, different Inorganic and organic elements that create turbidity and color in water, algae, bacteria, viruses and more others micro-organisms. Water purification tablets are not suitable for all type of water; it is suitable for clear water that is contaminants by bacteria, viruses and many others micro-organisms. If the water is contaminants by suspended particles or turbid then it should be need filtered throughout a cloth or other methods until the water would be clear. After the water is clear then it is suitable for Water purification tablets to make water purified.
Generally Chlorine compounds are the most common type of ingredients that is used in water purification tablets. Chlorine is an excellent disinfectant and able to rapidly destroy a lot of harmful micro-organisms. There are several ingredients that are used in water purification tablets such as Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), sodium hypochlorite, bleach, iodine, Chlorine dioxide, chloramines and halazone. Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate or Troclosene Sodium ingredient is approved by USA EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and it is more efficient than others ingredient. Chlorine compounds are a chlorine donor, when it is dissolved in water they releases free chlorine and react as a strong oxidant.
Water purification tablets dissolves within minutes and disinfects the water within 30 minutes. It is work a very wide range of water types and reduces total and fecal coliform bacteria and other micro-organisms levels to zero or low risk. It should be careful about inject over dosage. It is recommended that chlorine addition into drinking water should not cross over range between 4 and 8 ppm. Reason chlorine is a toxic gas and overdose can be harmful for human. In USA public utility water generally has 1 to 2 ppm chlorine. The chlorinated water ought to be allowed to sit for at least half an hour prior to being used for drinking purpose.
Although chlorine is an excellent disinfect but it has some drawbacks. For example if the water contain organic compounds, the chlorine may be reacts with some of them and can be form potentially harmful compounds (such as trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids). More over it has limited efficiency against protozoa (as like Giardia lamblia) that form cysts of its life cycle in water. But Iodine tablets are effective against Giardia lamblia.
Many organizations such as WHO, Unicef, Red Cross, Oxfam are used water purification tablets for their emergency aid service in different countries.